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Using a morphine equivalence metric to quantify opioid consumption: Examining the capacity to provide effective treatment of debilitating pain at the global, regional and country levels

Citation:

Gilson AM, Maurer MA, Ryan KM, Rathouz PJ, Cleary JF. Using a Morphine Equivalence Metric to Quantify Opioid Consumption: Examining the Capacity to Provide Effective Treatment of Debilitating Pain at the Global, Regional, and Country Levels. J Pain Symptom Manage 2013; 45(4):681-700.

Context

Morphine has been considered the gold standard for treating moderate-to-severe pain, although many new opioid products and formulations have been marketed in the last two decades and should be considered when examining opioid consumption. Understanding opioid consumption is improved by using an equianalgesic measure that controls for the strengths of all examined opioids.