Morphine

Using a morphine equivalence metric to quantify opioid consumption: Examining the capacity to provide effective treatment of debilitating pain at the global, regional and country levels

Citation:

Gilson AM, Maurer MA, Ryan KM, Rathouz PJ, Cleary JF. Using a Morphine Equivalence Metric to Quantify Opioid Consumption: Examining the Capacity to Provide Effective Treatment of Debilitating Pain at the Global, Regional, and Country Levels. J Pain Symptom Manage 2013; 45(4):681-700.

Context

Morphine has been considered the gold standard for treating moderate-to-severe pain, although many new opioid products and formulations have been marketed in the last two decades and should be considered when examining opioid consumption. Understanding opioid consumption is improved by using an equianalgesic measure that controls for the strengths of all examined opioids.

Toward Safe Accessibility of Opioid Pain Medicines in Vietnam and Other Developing Countries: A Balanced Policy Method

Citation:

Eric L. Krakauer, Nguyen Thi Phuong Cham, Syeda Asra Husain, Nguyen Thi Hai Yen, David E. Joranson, Luong Ngoc Khue, Martha A. Maurer. Toward Safe Accessibility of Opioid Pain Medicines in Vietnam and Other Developing Countries: A Balanced Policy Method, Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, 49(5):916-922.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2014.10.012

Moderate or severe pain is common among people with advanced cancer and other life-threatening illnesses. Yet despite agreement that pain relief is a human right, the poorest 80% of the world's population rarely have access to strong opioid analgesics. Excessively restrictive opioid policies, especially in developing countries, both stem from and propagate misguided fears about opioids, so-called opiophobia.

Improving Global Opioid Availability for Pain & Palliative Care: A Guide to a Pilot Evaluation of National Policy

Citation:

Pain & Policy Studies Group. Improving Global Opioid Availability for Pain & Palliative Care: A Guide to a Pilot Evaluation of National Policy. University of Wisconsin Carbone Cancer Center. Madison, WI; 2013.

Group. Our purpose for making these research results available is to promote education and policy change. We ask that anyone who wishes to use the policy data published herein for the purposes of research seek permission from the PPSG.

Improving Availability of and Access to Opioids in Colombia: Description and Preliminary Results of an Action Plan for the Country

Citation:

Leon MX, De Lima L, Florez S et al. Improving availability of and access to opioids in Colombia: description and preliminary results of an action plan for the country. J Pain Symptom Manage 2009;38:758-766. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2009.03.007

Country

Latin America consumes less than 2.7% of the morphine in the world, as reported by the governments to the International Narcotics Control Board. Methods to improve access to opioids for the treatment of pain have been developed by the Pain & Policy Studies Group (PPSG), a World Health Organization Collaborating Center at the University of Wisconsin. This article describes the preparation and implementation of an action plan in Colombia as a part of an international fellowship program on opioid policy developed by the PPSG and funded by the Open Society Institute.